1) Traversing: Every data structure contains the set of data elements. Traversing the data structure means visiting each element of the data structure in order to perform some specific operation like searching or sorting.

Example: If we need to calculate the average of the marks obtained by a student in 6 different subject, we need to traverse the complete array of marks and calculate the total sum, then we will divide that sum by the number of subjects i.e. 6, in order to find the average.

2) Deletion:The process of removing an element from the data structure is called Deletion. We can delete an element from the data structure at any random location.

If we try to delete an element from an empty data structure then underflow occurs.

3) Insertion: Insertion can be defined as the process of adding the elements to the data structure at any location.

If the size of data structure is n then we can only insert n-1 data elements into it.

4) Sorting: The process of arranging the data structure in a specific order is known as Sorting. There are many algorithms that can be used to perform sorting, for example, insertion sort, selection sort, bubble sort, etc.

5) Merging: When two lists List A and List B of size M and N respectively, of similar type of elements, clubbed or joined to produce the third list, List C of size (M+N), then this process is called merging.

6) Searching: The process of finding the location of an element within the data structure is called Searching. There are two algorithms to perform searching, Linear Search and Binary Search.