We can define a data dictionary as a DBMS component that stores the definition of data characteristics and relationships. You may recall that such “data about data” were labeled metadata. The DBMS data dictionary provides the DBMS with its self describing characteristic. In effect, the data dictionary resembles and X-ray of the company’s entire data set, and is a crucial element in the data administration function.
The two main types of data dictionary exist, integrated and stand alone. An integrated data dictionary is included with the DBMS. For example, all relational DBMSs include a built in data dictionary or system catalog that is frequently accessed and updated by the RDBMS. Other DBMSs especially older types, do not have a built in data dictionary instead the DBA may use third party stand alone data dictionary systems.
Data dictionaries can also be classified as active or passive. An active data dictionary is automatically updated by the DBMS with every database access, thereby keeping its access information up-to-date. A passive data dictionary is not updated automatically and usually requires a batch process to be run. Data dictionary access information is normally used by the DBMS for query optimization purpose.
The data dictionary’s main function is to store the description of all objects that interact with the database. Integrated data dictionaries tend to limit their metadata to the data managed by the DBMS. Stand alone data dictionary systems are more usually more flexible and allow the DBA to describe and manage all the organization’s data, whether or not they are computerized. Whatever the data dictionary’s format, its existence provides database designers and end users with a much improved ability to communicate. In addition, the data dictionary is the tool that helps the DBA to resolve data conflicts.
Although, there is no standard format for the information stored in the data dictionary several features are common. For example, the data dictionary typically stores descriptions of all:
• Data elements that are define in all tables of all databases. Specifically the data dictionary stores the name, datatypes, display formats, internal storage formats, and validation rules. The data dictionary tells where an element is used, by whom it is used and so on.
• Tables define in all databases. For example, the data dictionary is likely to store the name of the table creator, the date of creation access authorizations, the number of columns, and so on.
• Indexes define for each database tables. For each index the DBMS stores at least the index name the attributes used, the location, specific index characteristics and the creation date.
• Define databases: who created each database, the date of creation where the database is located, who the DBA is and so on.
• End users and The Administrators of the data base
• Programs that access the database including screen formats, report formats application formats, SQL queries and so on.
• Access authorization for all users of all databases.
• Relationships among data elements which elements are involved: whether the relationship are mandatory or optional, the connectivity and cardinality and so on.
If the data dictionary can be organized to include data external to the DBMS itself, it becomes an especially flexible to for more general corporate resource management. The management of such an extensive data dictionary, thus, makes it possible to manage the use and allocation of all of the organization information regardless whether it has its roots in the database data. This is why some managers consider the data dictionary to be the key element of the information resource management function. And this is also why the data dictionary might be described as the information resource dictionary.
The metadata stored in the data dictionary is often the bases for monitoring the database use and assignment of access rights to the database users. The information stored in the database is usually based on the relational table format, thus , enabling the DBA to query the database with SQL command. For example, SQL command can be used to extract information about the users of the specific table or about the access rights of a particular users.
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