Cyber Stalking

It is an act of stalking, harassing or threatening someone using Internet/computer as a medium. This is often done to defame a person and use email, social network, instant messenger, web-posting, etc. as a using Internet as a medium as it offers anonymity. The behaviour includes false accusations, threats, sexual exploitation to minors, monitoring, etc.

Child Pornography

It is an act of possessing image or video of a minor (under 18), engaged in sexual conduct.

Forgery and Counterfeiting

It is a use of computer to forgery and counterfeiting is a document. With the advancement in the hardware and the software, it is possible to produce counterfeit which matches the original document to such an extent that it is not possible to judge the authenticity of the document without expert judgement.

Software Piracy and Crime related to IPRs

Software piracy is an illegal reproduction and distribution for personal use or business. It comes under crime related to IPR infringement. Some of the other crimes under IPR infringement are: download of songs, downloading movies, etc.

Cyber Terrorism

It is defined as the use of computer resources to intimidate or coerce government, the civilian population or any segment thereof in furtherance of political or social objectives.


It is a process of acquiring personal and sensitive information of an individual via email by disguising as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication. The purpose of phishing is identity theft and the personal information like username, password, and credit card number etc. may be used to steal money from user account. If a telephone is used as a medium for identity theft, it is known as Vishing (voice phishing). Another form of phishing is Smishing, in which sms is used to lure customers.

Computer Vandalism

It is an act of physical destroying computing resources using physical force or malicious code.

Computer Hacking

It is a practice of modifying computer hardware and software to accomplish a goal outside the creator‟s original purpose. The purpose of hacking a computer system may vary from simply demonstrations of the technical ability, to sealing, modifying or destroying information for social, economic or political reasons. Now the corporate are hiring hackers, a person who is engaged in hacking computers, to intentionally hack the computer of an organization to find and fix security vulnerabilities.

Creating and distributing viruses over internet

The spreading of an virus can cause business and financial loss to an organization. The loss includes the cost of repairing the system, cost associated with the loss of business during downtime and cost of loss of opportunity. The organization can sue the hacker, if found, for the sum of more than or equivalent to the loss borne by the organization.


Sending of unsolicited and commercial bulk message over the internet is known as spamming. An email can be classified as spam, if it meets following criteria:
a. Mass mailing:- the email is not targeted to one particular person but to a large number of peoples.
b. Anonymity:- The real identify of the person not known
c. Unsolicited:- the email is neither expected nor requested for the recipient. These spams not only irritate the recipients and overload the network but also waste the time and occupy the valuable memory space of the mailbox.

Cross Site Scripting

It is an activity which involves injecting a malicious client side script into a trusted website. As soon as the browser executes the malicious script, the malicious script gets access to the cookies and other sensitive information and sent to remote servers. Now this information can be use to gain financial benefit or physical access to a system for personal interest.

Online Auction Fraud

There are many genuine websites who offers online auction over internet. Taking the advantage of the reputation of these websites, some of the cyber criminals lure the customers to online auction fraud schemes which often lead to either overpayment of the product or the item is never delivered once the payment is made.

Web Jacking

The hacker gain access to a website of an organization and either blocks it or modify it to serve political, economical or social interest. The recent examples of web jacking are some of the websites of the educational institutes were hacked by Pakistani hackers and an animation which contains Pakistani flags were flashed in the homepage of these websites. Another example is Indian hackers hacked website of Pakistani railways and flashed Indian flag in the homepage for several hours on the occasion of Independence Day of India in 2014.

Internet Time Thefts

Hacking the username and password of ISP of an individual and surfing the internet at his cost is Internet Time Theft.

Denial of Service Attack

It is a cyber attack in which the network is chocked and often collapsed by flooding it with useless traffic and thus preventing the legitimate network traffic.

Data Diddling

It is a practice of changing the data before its entry into the computer system. Often, the original data is retained after the execution on the data is done. For example, DA or the basic salary of the person is changed in the payroll data of an individual for pay calculation. Once the salary is calculated and transferred to his account, the total salary is replaced by his actual salary in the report.

Email Spoofing

It is a process of changing the header information of an e-mail so that its original source is not identified and it appears to an individual at the receiving end that the email has been originated from source other than the original source.