It is a technique to convert the data in unreadable form before transmitting it over the internet. Only the person who have the access to the key and convert it in the readable form and read it. Formally encryption can be defined as a technique to lock the data by converting it to complex codes using mathematical algorithms. The code is so complex that it even the most powerful computer will take several years to break the code. This secure code can safely be transmitted over internet to the destination. The receiver, after receiving the data can decode it using the key. The decoding of the complex code to original text using key is known as decryption. If the same key is used to lock and unlock the data, it is known as symmetric key encryption.
Figure : Encryption2
In symmetric key encryption, the after coding of data, the key is sent to the destination user via some other medium like postal service, telephone, etc. because if the key obtained by the hacker, the security of the data is compromised. Key distribution is a complex task because the security of key while transmission is itself an issue. To avoid the transfer of key a method called asymmetric key encryption, also known as public key encryption, is used. In 28asymmetric key encryption, the key used to encrypt and decrypt data are different. Every user posse‟s two keys viz. public key and private key. As the name suggest, the public key of every user is known to everyone but the private key is known to the particular user, who own the key, only. Suppose sender Awants to send a secret message to receiver B through internet. A will encrypt the message using B‟s public key, as the public key is known to everyone. Once the message is encrypted, the message can safely be send to B over internet. As soon as the message is received by B, he will use his private key to decrypt the message and regenerate the original message.